Planetary Gear Reduction

Many “gears” are utilized for automobiles, however they are also used for many various other machines. The most frequent one may be the “transmitting” that conveys the energy of engine to tires. There are broadly two functions the transmission of an automobile plays : one is certainly to decelerate the high rotation rate emitted by the engine to transmit to tires; the other is to change the reduction ratio relative to the acceleration / deceleration or driving speed of an automobile.
The rotation speed of an automobile’s engine in the overall state of driving amounts to 1 1,000 – 4,000 rotations per minute (17 – 67 per second). Since it is extremely hard to rotate tires with the same rotation acceleration to run, it is necessary to lessen the rotation speed using the ratio of the amount of gear teeth. This kind of a role is named deceleration; the ratio of the rotation swiftness of engine and that of tires is called the reduction ratio.
Then, exactly why is it necessary to alter the reduction ratio in accordance with the acceleration / deceleration or driving speed ? This is because substances require a large force to start moving however they do not require this kind of a huge force to excersice once they have began to move. Automobile can be cited as an example. An engine, nevertheless, by its character can’t so finely alter its output. For that reason, one adjusts its output by changing the decrease ratio utilizing a transmission.
The transmission of motive power through gears very much resembles the principle of leverage (a lever). The ratio of the amount of the teeth of gears meshing with each other can be deemed as the ratio of the length of levers’ arms. That is, if the reduction ratio is large and the rotation speed as output is lower in comparison to that as insight, the energy output by transmitting (torque) will be large; if the rotation velocity as output is not so low in comparison compared to that as insight, however, the power output by transmission (torque) will be small. Thus, to improve the reduction ratio utilizing transmission is much akin to the basic principle of moving things.
Then, how does a transmission change the reduction ratio ? The answer is based on the mechanism called a planetary equipment mechanism.
A planetary gear system is a gear mechanism comprising 4 components, namely, sun gear A, several world gears B, internal gear C and carrier D that connects world gears as seen in the graph below. It has a very complex structure rendering its style or production most difficult; it can recognize the high reduction ratio through gears, nevertheless, it really is a mechanism suitable for a reduction system that requires both small size and high performance such as for example transmission for automobiles.
In a planetary gearbox, many teeth are involved at once, that allows high speed reduction to be achieved with fairly small gears and lower inertia reflected back again to the engine. Having multiple teeth reveal the load also enables planetary gears to transmit high levels of torque. The mixture of compact size, large speed decrease and high torque tranny makes planetary gearboxes a favorite choice for space-constrained applications.
But planetary gearboxes perform have some disadvantages. Their complexity in design and manufacturing tends to make them a far more expensive answer than other gearbox types. And precision production is really important for these gearboxes. If one planetary equipment is positioned closer to sunlight gear than the others, imbalances in the planetary gears can occur, resulting in premature wear and failure. Also, the compact footprint of planetary gears makes high temperature dissipation more difficult, so applications that operate at high speed or encounter continuous operation may require cooling.
When utilizing a “standard” (i.e. inline) planetary gearbox, the motor and the driven equipment should be inline with one another, although manufacturers offer right-angle designs that include other gear sets (frequently bevel gears with helical tooth) to provide an offset between the input and output.
Input power (max)27 kW (36 hp)
Input speed (max)2800 rpm2
Output torque (intermittent)12,880 Nm(9,500 lb-ft)
Output torque (continuous)8,135 Nm (6,000 lb-ft)
1 Actual ratio would depend on the drive configuration.
2 Max input speed related to ratio and max result speed
3 Max radial load placed at optimum load position
4 Weight varies with configuration and ratio selected
5 Requires tapered roller planet bearings (unavailable with all ratios)
Approximate dry weight100 -181 kg (220 – 400 lb)4
Radial load (max)14,287kg (31,500 lb)3
Drive typeSpeed reducer
Hydraulic engine input SAE C or D hydraulic
Precision Planetary Reducers
This standard selection of Precision Planetary Reducers are ideal for use in applications that demand powerful, precise positioning and repeatability. These were specifically developed for make use of with state-of-the-art servo motor technology, providing limited integration of the electric motor to the unit. Style features include installation any servo motors, standard low backlash, high torsional stiffness, 95 to 97% efficiency and calm running.
They are available in nine sizes with reduction ratios from 3:1 to 600:1 and output torque capacities up to 16,227 lb.ft. The output could be provided with a good shaft or ISO 9409-1 flange, for mounting to rotary or indexing tables, pinion gears, pulleys or other drive elements without the need for a coupling. For high precision applications, backlash amounts right down to 1 arc-minute can be found. Right-angle and insight shaft versions of the reducers are also obtainable.
Normal applications for these reducers include precision rotary axis drives, traveling gantries & columns, materials handling axis drives and electronic line shafting. Industries offered include Material Managing, Automation, Aerospace, Machine Tool and Robotics.
Unit Design &
Construction
Gearing: Featuring case-hardened & surface gearing with minimal put on, low backlash and low sound, making them the the majority of accurate and efficient planetaries offered. Standard planetary style has three planet gears, with a higher torque edition using four planets also obtainable, please start to see the Reducers with Result Flange chart on the machine Ratings tab beneath the “+” unit sizes.
Bearings: Optional output bearing configurations for program particular radial load, axial load and tilting instant reinforcement. Oversized tapered roller bearings are standard for the ISO Flanged Reducers.
Housing: Single piece metal housing with integral ring gear provides higher concentricity and remove speed fluctuations. The housing can be installed with a ventilation module to increase insight speeds and lower operational temperature ranges.
Result: Available in a good shaft with optional keyway or an ISO 9409-1 flanged interface. You can expect an array of standard pinions to install directly to the output design of your choice.
Unit Selection
These reducers are typically selected based on the peak cycle forces, which usually happen during accelerations and decelerations. These cycle forces rely on the powered load, the velocity vs. time profile for the cycle, and any other exterior forces acting on the axis.
For application & selection assistance, please call, fax or email us. Your application info will be examined by our engineers, who will recommend the best solution for the application.
Ever-Power Automation’s Gearbox product lines offer high precision at affordable prices! The Planetary Gearbox item offering contains both In-Line and Right-Position configurations, built with the design goal of supplying a cost-effective gearbox, without sacrificing quality. These Planetary Gearboxes can be found in sizes from 40mm to 180mm, well suited for motors ranging from NEMA 17 to NEMA 42 and bigger. The Spur Gearbox range provides an efficient, cost-effective choice appropriate for Ever-Power Automation’s AC Induction Gear Motors. Ever-Power Automation’s Gearboxes can be found in up to 30 different gear ratios, with torque rankings up to 10,488 in-lbs (167,808 oz-in), and are compatible with most Servo,
SureGear Planetary Gearboxes for Little Ever-Power Motors
The SureGear PGCN series is a great gearbox value for servo, stepper, and other motion control applications requiring a NEMA size input/output interface. It provides the best quality available for the price point.
Features
Wide range of ratios (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100:1)
Low backlash of 30 arc-min or less
20,000 hour service life
Maintenance free; requires no additional lubrication
NEMA sizes 17, 23, and 34
Includes hardware for mounting to SureStep stepper motors
Optional shaft bushings designed for mounting to other motors
1-year warranty
Applications
Material handling
Pick and place
Automation
Packaging
Additional motion control applications requiring a Ever-Power input/output
Spur gears are a type of cylindrical gear, with shafts that are parallel and coplanar, and the teeth that are directly and oriented parallel to the shafts. They’re arguably the easiest and most common kind of gear – simple to manufacture and ideal for an array of applications.
One’s teeth of a spur gear ‘ve got an involute profile and mesh one particular tooth at the same time. The involute type implies that spur gears simply generate radial forces (no axial forces), however the approach to tooth meshing causes ruthless on the gear one’s teeth and high sound creation. Because of this, spur gears are usually utilized for lower swiftness applications, although they could be utilized at almost every speed.
An involute apparatus tooth carries a profile this is the involute of a circle, which means that since two gears mesh, they get in touch with at an individual point where the involutes satisfy. This aspect motions along the tooth areas as the gears rotate, and the type of force ( referred to as the line of actions ) is usually tangent to both foundation circles. Hence, the gears adhere to the fundamental regulation of gearing, which statements that the ratio of the gears’ angular velocities must stay continuous through the entire mesh.
Spur gears could possibly be produced from metals such as for example metal or brass, or from plastics such as for example nylon or polycarbonate. Gears manufactured from plastic produce much less audio, but at the difficulty of power and loading capacity. Unlike other equipment types, spur gears don’t encounter high losses because of slippage, therefore they often have high transmission performance. Multiple spur gears can be utilized in series ( referred to as a gear teach ) to attain large reduction ratios.
There are two primary types of spur gears: external and internal. Exterior gears have one’s teeth that are cut externally surface area of the cylinder. Two exterior gears mesh with one another and rotate in opposite directions. Internal gears, on the other hand, have teeth that are cut inside surface of the cylinder. An exterior gear sits inside the internal gear, and the gears rotate in the same direction. Because the shafts sit closer together, internal gear assemblies are smaller sized than external gear assemblies. Internal gears are mainly used for planetary equipment drives.
Spur gears are usually viewed as best for applications that require speed reduction and torque multiplication, such as for example ball mills and crushing equipment. Types of high- velocity applications that use spur gears – despite their high noise levels – include consumer devices such as Planetary Gear Reduction washers and blenders. And while noise limits the use of spur gears in passenger automobiles, they are generally used in aircraft engines, trains, and even bicycles.

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